What Countries Are A Part Of The Paris Agreement
Here`s a look at what the Paris Agreement does, how it works, and how important it is to our future. The Kyoto Protocol, a landmark environmental agreement adopted at COP3 in Japan in 1997, is the first time that countries have agreed on country-specific emission reduction targets that are legally mandated. The protocol, which only entered into force in 2005, set binding emission reduction targets only for developed countries, based on the assumption that they were responsible for most of the Earth`s high greenhouse gas emissions. The United States first signed the agreement, but never ratified it; President George W. Bush argued that the deal would hurt the U.S. economy because it would not include developing countries such as China and India. Without the participation of these three countries, the effectiveness of the treaty has proven to be limited, as its objectives cover only a small fraction of total global emissions. For example, James Hansen, a former NASA scientist and climate change expert, expressed anger that most of the deal is made up of “promises” or goals, not firm commitments.  He called the Paris talks a fraud without “any action, only promises” and believes that only a cross-cutting tax on CO2 emissions, which is not part of the Paris Agreement, would reduce CO2 emissions fast enough to avoid the worst effects of global warming.  The process of translating the Paris Agreement into national programmes and its implementation has begun. The commitment of the least developed countries (NTPs) is an example of this. The LDC Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Sustainable Development Initiative, known as the REEEI LDC, aims to provide sustainable and clean energy to millions of energy-intensive people in the least developed countries, improve access to energy, create jobs and contribute to the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals.
 International agreements are initially signed to signal the intention to comply, but only become binding through ratification. It may be an Act of Parliament or any other formal adoption. Different countries have different processes. Former US President Barack Obama used controversial executive powers to ratify the 2016 Paris Agreement. A preliminary study with inventory implications was published in April 2020 in Nature Communications. Based on a public policy database and multi-model scenario analysis, the authors showed that the implementation of current policies by 2030 leaves a median emissions gap of 22.4 to 28.2 GtCO2eq with optimal pathways to implement the Paris targets well below 2°C and 1.5°C. . .